Wind Energy in Iran
Wind energy nowadays can be used for generating electricity, pumping water from wells and rivers, grinding of grain and so on. The prevailing application of wind energy is generation of electricity, using wind turbines. Although there are different designs for wind turbines, the main types are divided to two categories based on direction of axis rotation.
-Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines ( HAWTS) being the common type
-Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTS)
Wind energy is among rapidly maturing technologies. It is not only its low price, but also stability of the costs for wind energy which makes it attractive for governmental sector, private sector and companies who are looking for protection from drastic fluctuation of fossil fuel prices.
Wind energy industry is a key solution to issues such as climatic changes, air pollution, energy security, price stability and creating of new jobs and industries. Wind energy is the most competitive way to add new grid connected capacity for generation of electricity compared with numerous markets in the world, even those heavily subsidized.
Wind industry has left a new global record in annual installation during the year 2014. In global scale, approximately 51000 MW of new capacity is installed which is unprecedented and shows a 44% growth in annual market. Total installed capacity has reached 370000 at the end of the year 2014.
Considering its vast area, diverse climatic regions, high altitudes ، vast plains and long coasts, there are numerous windy areas in Iran. It is worthy to mention that design and construction of windmills in Iran dates back to 200 BC and there is still an appropriate ground for developing utilization of wind turbines. In line with the global advancements, Iran joined the Wind Energy Producers' Global Club in 1994 by installing 2X550 KW turbines. According to the studies in regard to renewable energy sources in the country, technical potential of wind energy in the country is more than 140000 MW, of which, 20000 is estimated to be economic.
Regardless of factors such as further diversification of types and energy security, creating business opportunities, preventing environmental pollutions, passive defense, … calculations indicate that from economic point of view, utilizing wind energy for generation of electricity is of extreme importance for our country. So, it seems that development of wind farms in the country can be regarded as a strategic task. Moreover, considering that our country directly and indirectly ranks first in global combined reserves of oil and gas, maintaining and improving of this ranking through utilization of wind energy and using the fossil fuels in applications other than burning and generating electricity and creating a higher added value is quite necessary.
Activities and achievements in the field of wind energy
- 1-Construction of Manjil 100 MW wind farm
- 2-Construction of Binalood 28.4 MW wind farm
- 3-Installation of 15 X 660 KW of Manjil wind turbines in windy regions of the country in order to promote utilization of wind energy throughout the country: Of such installations we can refer to installation of 660 KW turbines in Isfahan, Ardebil, Mahshahr, Fars, and Zabol and also 1980 KW in Tabriz and 2 turbines in Khaaf region.
- 4-Acquiring the knowhow for manufacturing of 660 KW (S47) Turbine components and increasing the domestic manufacture percentage from 20% to 80% during the past 2 years.
- 5-Manufacturing of lifts for 660 KW turbines which is done exclusively and for the first time.
- 6-Acquiring the knowhow for potential measurement in the country which is performed through technology transfer from Germany.
- 7-Acquiring the knowhow and technical capability of manufacturing megawatt turbines.
- 8-Performing the potential measurement and preparing the national wind atlas : Potential measurement and national wind atlas project is planned and implemented in order to measure the wind potentials and locate proper sites for construction of wind farms. The first edition of Iran Wind Map is prepared, using the data gathered from 160 meteorological stations, meteorological balloons, higher atmosphere wind atlas, topographic and application maps of the lands and 3d atmosphere simulation software (Klimm). The procedure included installation of 123 wind measurement stations with 40 meter masts (and 1X 80 meter mast) equipped with advanced measurement gear at altitudes of 10, 30 and 40 meters in order to improve the accuracy of Iran Wind Map and covering the areas lacking the required data. In addition to recording of wind data, these stations have also been equipped with heat and humidity combo sensors and sunlight measurement sensors. Based on the data acquired from these stations, calculations and software based modeling have been performed and the final edition of Iran Wind Map has been prepared. These maps are regularly updated by changing the location of the sensors and setting up of new stations.